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Nubia

270's B.C.E. Nubia invaded by Greeks under Ptolemy II.
70 C.E. Pliny describes Nubia; Romans capture Jerusalem with Nubian mercenary cavalry.
297 Withdrawal of Romans from Lower Nubia to Aswan.
450's Anonymous Christians begin missions in Nubia; Mouses, a Nobadian prince may have converted to Christianity; Tantani, phylarch of Nobades, also appears to be a Christian.
c. 500's Kushite empire replaced by three Nubian kingdoms: Nobadia in northern Nubia, Makuria in central Nubia, and Alwa southern Nubia.
527-565 Emperor Justinian rules the Eastern Roman empire; the reconquest of much of North Africa.
537 Nubian King Silko implies that he is the first Christian king of Nubia.
543 Julian, a Coptic monk sent by Empress Theodora to Nubia; Theodore becomes bishop of Philae (Nile island) in Nobadia; Monophysite faith.
c. 543 King of Nobatia baptized.
c. 550's Faras established as capital of Christian Nobadia. A former guest house is converted to a church; referred to as the "Rivergate Church."
c. 555 Missionary Longinus at Nobadia and Alwa (Alodia); established clergy and liturgy.
c. 573 Dongola established as capital of Makuria after its conversion to Christianity; converted to Melkite Christianity (Orthodoxy.)
c. 580 Alwa converts to Monophysite Christianity. Soba is the established capital.
640 Muslim conquest of Egypt.
641-642 Islamic armies of Amru b. El-As campaign against Nubia but fail to capture it.
646 Muslim rulers of Egypt attack Nubia.
652 Baqt (Pact) treaty established between Nubia and Egypt; Christian Nubians and Arabs in Egypt agree that Aswan on Nile should mark southern limit of Arab expansion; only time in the Middle Ages that Muslims exempted a non-Muslim state from conquest.
697-707 King Merkurius unites Nobadia and Makuria; sometimes referred to by bishops as the "new Constantine."
707 Reconstruction of the cathedral in Faras under direction of Bishop Paulos.
720 Baqt treaty established between Egypt and Beja of the Red Sea.
740's Cyriacus, the Makurian king lays siege to Umayy capital at Fustat (Cairo); seeks release of Alexandrian patriarch Abba Michael.
762-770 Muslim raids led by Abd al A'la b. Hamid .
762-770 c. 800-1000 Nubian era of prosperity.
819-822 Dongola king and Beja refuse to pay baqt tribute.
856 Giorgios I (816-920), crowned King of Makuria.
866 Faras becomes metropolitan see; Abba Kyros (866-902.)
920 Reign begins of Makurian King Zakaria.
1000 Nilotic pastoral expansion into southern Sudan.
1127 Nubian King George IV.
1140's Christian kingdom of Dotawo noted in Nubia.
1235 Last priest sent to Nubia from Alexandria.
1264 Nubians again pay baqt tribute, now to Mamlukes.
1276 Mamluke Egyptians sack Dongola; forced conversion to Islam.
1317 Defeat of the last Christian king in Nubia; first mosque is built at Dongola.
1371-1372 Bishop of Faras consecrated by Patriarch in Alexandria.
1453 Fall of Roman Empire of the East.
c. 1500 The fall of Soba, capital of the last Christian kingdom of Alwa; rise of the Islamized Funj.