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800–1000 Sahadic Lives of Samuel of Qalamun, Fayyum and Pisentius of Qift, near Thebes, (both lived during Arab conquest), seeking to halt Christian assimilation; show survival of Coptic Christian identity.
800’s Christian empire in Ethiopia gravitates south after the decline of Aksum; Arab and Persian merchants explore East African coast with trading stations at Malindi, Mombasa, Kilwa, and Mogadishu.
813 Theophanes writes Chronicle (covers years 602-813.)
819–830 James, patriarch of Alexandria.
859 Shenute I, elected patriarch of Alexandria (859-880) at Church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus, Old Cairo.
863–867 Photian Schism between patriarch Photius of Constantinople and Pope Nicolas I.
868–905 Tulunid caliphs rule.
869 Venetian Bernard the Wise reports monastery of St. Mark outside the eastern gate of Alexandria, where Mark’s body formerly reposed, stolen in 828 by Venetians (a bone returned 1968.)
880–907 Kha’il III, patriarch of Alexandria.
c. 885 Stephen the Theban writes Logos Asketikos (Ascetic Sermon), Entolai and Diataxis; Arabic texts survive at St. Saba.