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Egypt

600’s Ethiopian kingdom remains linked with Coptic patriarchate; metropolitan chosen by patriarch of Alexandria;
605–616 Anastasius, patriarch of Alexandria.
610–641 Lengthy reign of Heraclius the younger, emperor of the Christian orient, who asserts Byzantine interests in Egypt.
616–623 Andronicus, patriarch of Alexandria.
619–629 Persian occupation of Egypt ends Byzantine Rule.
622 The Hejira, Muhammad’s flight from Mecca to Medina, begins Islamic era; first year in Muslim calendar, 1 A. H. = Anno Hegirae.
622–680 Monothelite controversy.
623–662 Benjamin I, patriarch of Alexandria, author of Easter Epistles and Homily on Cana Wedding, spends ten years in exile under Heraclius and three under the Muslims.
625 Muhammad begins dictating Qur’an to scribe.
628–646 Maximus the Confessor residing in Africa as refugee from Palestine due to Persian invasion, was tried, tortured, and died in exile in 662; writes on forced baptism at Carthage in 632.
629–642 Byzantine recovery of Egypt.
630 Death of Stephen of Alexandria, philosopher-alchemist-astronomer.
631–642 Emperor Heraclius sends Cyrus as pro-Chalcedonian patriarch of Alexandria, and governor of Egypt, attempting to bring Copts into Melkite church.
632 Death of Muhammad at Medina; Caliph Abu Bakr begins conquest of Palestine.
634 Church of Saints Cyrus and John first built in Babylon, Old Cairo (now St. Barbara.)
634–642 Expansion of Islam, Palestine, Syria and Egypt, where majority populations of Jews and Christians lived, come under Arab domination.
638 Ps.-Shenute’s Vision, prophesies calamities; falsely attributed to Shenute of Atripe.
639 Arab Conquest of Egypt begins with fall of Pelusium.
c. 640 Coptic Homily on the Child Saints of Babylon (anon.)
641 Fall of Fort Babylon, Old Cairo, to Arabs.
642 Fall of Alexandria; destruction of library of Alexandria witnessed by John of Nikiu, author of universal history, Chronicle, that survived only in Ethiopic—key source for Arab conquest and end of Byzantine rule in Egypt.
646 Arabs burn cathedral of St. Mark in Alexandria.
650’s Irish ornamentation characterized by interlacing motif found frequently in Coptic art; Coptic influence spreads through monks who copied in the scriptoria.
652 Christian Nubians and Arabs in Egypt agree that Aswan on Nile should mark southern limit of Arab expansion.
662–680 Agathon, patriarch of Alexandria during Arab conquest; ransomed captive slaves; authored Panegyric on Benjamin.
680–681 Third Council of Constantinople, Sixth ecumenical Council, begun under Constantine IV, completed by the synod in Trullo (692) under Justinian II, condems monothelism and monoenergism, confirming that in Christ are two inseparable wills and two inseparable energies, reemphasizing Chalcedonian Christology.
680–689 John III (John of Samanud), patriarch of Alexandria, answers Questions of Theodore.
689–692 Coptic Life of Isaac of Rakoti, patriarch of Alexandria.
690–692 Isaac, patriarch of Alexandria; Menas, Bishop of Nikiu, writes Life of Patriarch Isaac.
690–715 Coptic eschatology amid Arab rule: Ps.-Athanasius, Apocalypse.
692–700 Simon I, patriarch of Alexandria.
late 600’s Menas, monk of Akhmim, remained at Ashmunayn monastery until captured by Arabs; martyred.