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Egypt

500’s Monasteries in Alexandria identified by milestones on the way to Mareotis, Pempton (fifth mile), Ennaton (ninth mile), Dekaton (tenth), Oktokaidekaton (eighteenth mile), Eikoston (twentieth); Monastery of St. Jeremiah at Saqqara; Apophthegmata Patrum (Sayings of the Desert Fathers) compiled at Wadi al-Natrunl Ghanaian empire most important power in West Africa.
512 Severus (d. 465) consecrated bishop of Antioch (512-538), author of numerous Homilies and Letters; he was the exegetical and theological leader of non-Chacedonians of Egypt.
516 Dioscorus II Coptic patriarch of Alexandria.
517–535 Timothy III Coptic patriarch of Alexandria.
518 Anti-Chalcedonian Julian of Halicarnassus is exiled to Egypt.
518–538 Bishop Severus of Antioch has lengthy exile to Sakha, Egypt; he teaches in non-Chalcedonian monasteries in Egypt.
519 End of Acacian Schism and acceptance of Chalcedon in East, excepting “monophysites” who are still persecuted in Egypt and throughout North Africa; official shunning of Coptic language and intellectual tradition by Byzantines.
527–565 Era of Justinian the Great, Byzantine emperor, Code of Justinian; Imperial laws constraining heretics, Jews, and pagans in Africa.
529 Benedict of Nursia (480-547) founds monasteries on Pachomian lines of discipline at Montecassino and Subiaco in the Italian Aniene valley, continuing many patterns of African monasticism through the Benedictine rule.
533 Byzantine General Belisarius uproots Vandals from North Africa and reconquers Egypt, restoring the empire almost to its former dimensions from Mauretania to Armenia, building many fortresses and basilicas in Africa; now Byzantine forms of Christian architecture appear throughout North Africa.
536–566 Anti-Chalcedonian Theodosius I, patriarch of Alexandria, author of Homilies.
536–567 Justinian establishes Chalcedonian episcopal hierarchy in Alexandria until rise of Islam; built Angelion Church in Serapium area (destroyed in tenth century), but patriarch remained largely physically removed from Alexandria in perpetual exile.
538–540 Chalcedonian patriarch Paul Tabennesiota, succeeded by Zoilus in 540, Apollinaris in 551, and John in 570.
540 Three Christian Kingdoms now lie south of Egypt: Nobatia (cap. Faras), Makuria (Dongola), Alwa (Soba.)
543 Edict against Origenism.
544 Three Chapters controversy enflames conflicts between Copts and other Orthodox Christians.
546 Justinian condemns the Three Chapters; first move to reconciliation with Monophysites.
547–565 Construction of St. Catherine’s Monastery in the Sinai.
c. 550 Cassiodorus founds the monastery, Vivarium, in Calabria in southern Italy, with scriptorium out of which many texts originally written in Africa became first known to Europeans and accessible to pre-medieval monastic libraries, conveying the fourth century African intellectual tradition to sixth century Europe for the first time.
553 Fifth ecumenical council, Second Council of Constantinople; Condemnation of Three Chapters.
c. 563 Columba’s (c. 521-597) mission to Iona begins bringing African penitential discipline to Scots.
564–577 Non-Chalcedonian Paul of Antioch as patriarch of Alexandria.
567 Philosopher John Philoponos attempts Aristotelian interpretation of Trinity, resisted by most Copts.
567–576 Peter IV patriarch of Alexandria; over 600 Coptic monasteries flourish in Egypt.
c. 570–649 John Climacus of Sinai.
570’s Chalcedonians send mission to the Kingdom of Makurrah.
576–605 Damian, patriarch of Alexandria, author of Synodicon defends counter-Chalcedonian Christology.
578–615 Peripatetic ascetic John Moschus accompanied by with Sophronius (550-638) in Alexandria and Sinai, writes Pratum spirituale, Life of John the Almsgiver; Christmas Sermon; he is elected patriarch of Jerusalem (634-638); his Synodical Letter counters monophysite teaching in Egypt and Palestine.
585 Columbanus (545-615) from Ireland to Gaul, founds monastery of Luxeuil, bringing African orthodox penitential tradition in a great circle back to Europe from Ireland to serve Europe’s early medieval formation.
598 Birth of Samuel, who headed Monastery Dair Anba Samuel at al-Qalamun in western Egyptian desert.