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African Provinces

500s

Ghanaian empire most important power in West Africa.

500s

Monasteries in Alexandria identified by milestones on the way to Mareotis, Pempton (fifth mile), Ennaton (ninth mile), Dekaton (tenth Oktokaidekaton (eighteenth mile) Eikoston (twentieth); Monastery of St. Jeremiah at Saqqara; Apophthegmata Patrum (Sayings of the Desert Fathers) compiled at Wadi al-Natrunl Ghanaian empire most important power in West Africa.
 

505

Death of Eugenius, bishop of Carthage.

512

Severus (d. 465) consecrated bishop of Antioch (512-538), author of numerous Homilies and Letters; he was the exegetical and theological leader of non-Chalcedonians of Egypt.
 

512-532

Fulgentius (Fulgence), bishop of Ruspe (467-532) writes his Letters, The Rule of Faith, Synodal Letter of Fulgence of Ruspe and Other African Bishops, to John and Venerius, answers semi-Pelagian views.

516

Dioscorus II Coptic patriarch of Alexandria.

517-535

Timothy III Coptic patriarch of Alexandria.

518

Anti-Chalcedonian Julian of Halicarnassus is exiled to Egypt.

518-538

Bishop Severus of Antioch has lengthy exile to Sakha, Egypt; he teaches in non-Chalcedonian monasteries in Egypt.
 

519

End of Acacian Schism and acceptance of Chalcedon in East, excepting "monophysites" who are still persecuted in Egypt and throughout North Africa; official shunning of Coptic. language and intellectual tradition by Byzantines.
 

519

End of Acacian Schism and acceptance of Chalcedon in East, excepting "monophysites" who are still persecuted in Egypt and throughout North Africa.

520–547

Ferrandus, a disciple of Fulgentius, is deacon of the church of Carthage.

523

Vandal king Thrasamund dies.

527-565

Era of Justinian the Great, Byzantine emperor, Code of Justinian; Imperial laws
constraining heretics, Jews, and pagans in Africa.
 

529

Benedict of Nursia (480-547) founds monasteries on Pachomian lines of discipline at Montecassino and Subiaco in the Italian Aniene valley, continuing many patterns of African.monasticism through the Benedictine rule.
 

530

Death of Vandal king Hilderic.

532

Death of Fulgentius of Ruspe.

533

Byzantine General Belisarius uproots Vandals from North Africa and reconquers Egypt, restoring the empire almost to its former dimensions from Mauretania to Armenia, building many fortresses and basilicas in Africa; now Byzantine forms of Christian architecture appear throughout North Africa.
 

533

Byzantine General Belisarius uproots Vandals from North Africa and reconquers Egypt, restoring the empire almost to its former dimensions from Mauretania to Armenia, building many fortresses and basilicas in Africa; now Byzantine forms of Christian architecture appear throughout North Africa.

534

Death of Vandal king Gelimer.

536-566

Anti-Chalcedonian Theodosius I, patriarch of Alexandria, author of Homilies.

536-567

Justinian establishes Chalcedonian episcopal hierarchy in Alexandria until rise of Islam.

536-567

Justinian establishes Chalcedonian episcopal hierarchy in Alexandria until rise of Islam; built Angelion Church in Serapium area (destroyed in tenth century), but patriarch remained largely physically removed from Alexandria in perpetual exile.
 

538-540

Chalcedonian patriarch Paul Tabennesiota, succeeded by Zoilus in 540, Apollinaris in 551, and John in 570.
 

540

Three Christian Kingdoms now lie south of Egypt: Nobatia (cap. Faras), Makuria (Dongola), Alwa (Soba.)
 

543

Edict against Origenism

544

Three Chapters controversy enflames conflicts between Copts and other Orthodox Christians.
 

546

Justinian condemns the Three Chapters; first move to reconciliation with Monophysites.

547-565

Construction of St. Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai.

c. 550

Cassiodorus founds the monastery, Vivarium, in Calabria in southern Italy, with scriptorium out of which many texts originally written in Africa became first known to Europeans and accessible to pre-medieval monastic libraries, conveying the fourth century African intellectual tradition to sixth century Europe for the first time.
 

c. 550

Cassiodorus founds the monastery Vivarium in Calabria in southern Italy, with scriptorium out of which many texts originally written in Africa became first known to Europeans and accessible to pre-medieval monastic libraries, conveying the fourth century African intellectual tradition to sixth century Europe for the first time.

552

Death of Verecundus of Iunca in Byzacena.

553

 Fifth ecumenical council, Second " Council of Constantinople; Condemnation of Three Chapters.
 

553

Fifth ecumenical council, Second Council of Constantinople; Condemnation of Three Chapters.

560-570

Primasius, bishop of Hadrumetum, author of Commentary on the Apocalypse and Letters.

c. 563

Columba's (c. 521-597) mission to Iona begins bringing African penitential discipline to Scots.

c. 563

Columba's (c. 521-597) mission to lona begins bringing African penitential discipline to Scots.
 

564-577

Non-Chalcedonian Paul of Antioch as patriarch of Alexandria.

567

Philosopher John Philoponos attempts Aristotelian interpretation of Trinity, resisted by most Copts.
 

567-576

 Peter IV patriarch of Alexandria; over 600 Coptic monasteries flourish in Egypt.

c. 570-649

John Climacus of Sinai.

570s

Chalcedonians send mission to the Kingdom of Makurrah.

576-605

Damian, patriarch of Alexandria, author of Synodicon defends counter-Chalcedonian Christology.
 

578-615

Peripatetic ascetic John Moschus accompanied by with Sophronius (550-638) in Alexandria and Sinai, writes Pratum spirituale, Life of John the Almsgiver; Christmas Sermon; he is elected patriarch of Jerusalem (634-638); his Synodical Letter counters monophysite teaching in Egypt and Palestine.
 

585

Columbanus (545-615) from Ireland to Gaul, founds monastery of Luxeuil, bringing African orthodox penitential tradition in a great circle back to Europe from Ireland to serve Europe's early medieval formation.
 

585

Columbanus (545-615) from Ireland to Gaul, founds monastery of Luxeuil, bringing African orthodox penitential tradition in a great circle back to Europe from Ireland to serve Europe's early medieval formation.

590-604

Pope Gregory the Great (540-604) brings Augustinian theology to normative status in the west; inaugurates mission to England.

595

Heraclius the elder, leading general of the Emperor Maurice, becomes exarch of Carthage; he is the father of Byzantine Emperor Heraclius the younger.

598

Birth of Samuel, who headed Monastery Dair Anba Samuel at al-Qalamun in western Egyptian desert