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African Provinces

400

African monasticism spreads to Gaul; Honoratus found monastery at Lerins following Egyptian rule.
 

400

Augustine writes Against the Letter of Parmenian (Contra epistolam Parmeniani), Responses to Januarius (Ad inquisitiones Januarii) and On the Work of Monk (De opere monachorum.)

c. 400

African saints and martyrs include Antonius Honoratus, bishop of Constantina in Numidia; Faustinianus, bishop of Timgad in Numidia; Palladius, bishop of Tebessa in Algeria; Perseverantius, Donatist bishop of Tebessa, Algeria; Pomerius Julianus of Mauretania; Potentius and Renatus, bishops of Tipasa in Mauretania; Secundus, bishop of Timgad; Urbanus, bishop of Sicca Veneria; Urbicus, bishop of Tebessa; Victor, bishop of Constantine in Numidia; Victor of Cartenna in Mauretania.

c. 400

Apostolic Constitutions gathered from previous sources indicating African influence on shaping of early canon law.

c. 400

Apostolic Constitutions gathered from previous sources indicating African influence on the shaping of early canon law.
 

c. 400

Augustine, Against Faustus the Manichean.

c. 400

Codex Bobiensis provides evidence showing that the first Latin translation of the gospels came out of Africa (Carthage) containing the shorter ending of Mark.

400-401

Augustine writes On Baptism and Against the Donatist (De baptismo contra Donatistas.)

400-412

Theophilis pursues anti-Origenist policies in monasteries.

400-419

Augustine writes The Trinity (De Trinitate.)

400-500

Collections emerge of sayings of previous desert fathers, Apophthegms of the Desert Fathers.

401

Augustine writes On the Good of Marriage (De bono conjugali) and Holy Viriginity (De sancta virginitate.)

401-404

Rufinus writes Explanation of the Apostles' Creed and History of the Church.

401-405

Augustine writes Against the Letters of Petilian the Donatist (Contra litteras Petiliani). Augustine's polemical writings against Manichees, Donatists, and Pelagians dominate subsequent Western Christian thought .

401-414

Augustine writes On the Literal Interpretation of Genesis (De Genesi ad litteram.)

402-405

Augustine writes To Catholic Members of the Church (Ad catholicos fraters.)

403

Augustine preaches in Carthage at intervals.

403

Ecclesiastical trial of Chrysostom, Synod of the Oak, a victory for Theophilis.

405-406

Augustine writes On the Unity of the Church (De unitate ecclesiae), To Cresconius, a Donatist Grammarian (Ad Cresconium grammaticum partis Donati.)

406-411

Augustine writes On the Divination of Demons (De divinatione daemonum.)

407-417

Augustine begins On John's Gospel (Tractatus in Joh. Ev.)

408-409

Augustine writes Six Questions against Pagans (Quaestiones expositae contra paganos.)

408-412

Augustine writes On the Advantage of Fasting (De utilitate jejunii.)

410

Augustine attends the Council of Carthage XV, which withdraws toleration for Donatists; it is a huge Conference (Collatio) with 285 Donatist and 286 Catholic bishops taking part; judgment is rendered against Donatists by the imperial tribune, Marcellinus.

410

Neoplatonic Philosopher Synesius of Cyrene (370-414) in Libya becomes bishop of Ptolemais in Libya, wrote Hymns and Prayers.

410

Rome is sacked by Alaric; Roman refugees flee to Africa; Pelagius passes through Hippo; arrival of Marcellinus; in ill health, Augustine retires to a villa outside Hippo for the winter.

411

Augustine preaches regularly at Carthage, then to Cirta and back to Carthage; Marcellinus reports that Pelagian views were spreading in Carthage.

411-412

Augustine writes A Summary of the Meeting with the Donatists (Breviculus collationis contra Donatistas), De gratia Testamenti Novi and On Merit and the Remission of Sins (De peccatorum meritis et remissione.)

412

Augustine writes On the Spirit and the Letter (De spiritu et litter.a)

412

Caelestius the Pelagian condemned at Carthage.

412

Rise of Pelagianism, Pelagius writes In Favor of Free Will, against inherited sin, arguing that Adam's sin harmed only himself.

412

Staggered by the vulnerability of Rome under siege, Augustine began his City of God.

412-444


Cyril bishop ·of Alexandria (b. 376) writes Festal Letters; commentaries on Pentateuch, Isaiah, Minor Prophets, Songs, Proverbs, John, Luke, Pauline Epistles; Against Julian, Against Nestorius; Anathemas; Life of Athanasius and Catecheses (attributed to Cyril.)
 

413

Augustine writes On Faith and Works (De fide et operibus) and (De videndo Deo ad Paulinam.)

413

Pelagius writes Letter to Demetrias.

413-415

Augustine writes On Nature and Grace (De natura et gratia), On the Good of Widowhood (De bono viduitatis.)

415

Augustine writes To Orsius (Ad Orosium contra Priscillianistas et Origenistas), On the Origin of the Soul (De origine animae et de sentential Jacobi ad Hieronymum), Tractatus in peistolam Joannis ad Partho and On the Perfection of Human Righteousness (De perfectione justitiae hominis.)

415

Murder of Platonist philosopher Hypatia at Alexandria by mob; Cyril resists both the Alexandrian civil government of Orestes, and the Alexandrian Jews, and the Isis cult at Menouthis.
 

416

Paulus Orosius arrives in Africa and brings St. Stephen's relics with him.

416

Pelagius writes Free Will.

416

Visigoths in Spain.

416, 418, 419

Pelagius condemned in Councils of Carthage.

417

Augustine writes On the Correction of the Donatists (De correctione Donatistarum), Letter 185.

417

Orosius' Historiae, attempts Christian universal history from the flood to 417.

418

Case of Apiarius, excommunicated bishop of Sicca, who appeals to Rome on basis of Nicene canons.

418-420

Augustine writes On Continence (De continentia.)

418-452 fl.

Marius Mercator (390-452), African born geographer and theological writer.

419

Council of Carthage assembles to discuss the claim of Rome to have jurisdiction over North Africa.

419-420

Augustine writes Against Adversaries of the Law and the Prophets (Contra adversarium legis et prophetarum), On Adulterous Marriages (De adulterinis conjugiis), On the Soul and Its Origin, (De anima et eius origine), Questions on the Heptateuch and Sayings in the Heptateuch.

420

Augustine writes Against Two Letters of the Pelagians; finishes On the Trinity (De Trinitate), his principal dogmatic work on the Trinitarian mystery in the life of grace.

420-428

Monk John Cassian (c. 360-c. 432) reports conversations with leading African desert fathers in his Conferences encouraging spread of monastic movement to Gaul, following Egyptian rule.
 

421

Augustine attends XVIII Council of Carthage and writes Against Julian (Contra Julianum.)

421

Augustine writes The Enchiridion of Faith, Hope, and Love (Enchiridion ad Laurentium.)

421-424

Augustine writes On the Care of the Dead (De cura pro mortuis gerenda), On Eight Questions from Dulcitius, (De octo Dulcitii quaestionibus)and Against Gaudentius (Contra Gaudentium Donatistarum episcopum.)

424

Eraclius builds memoria to St. Stephen at Hippo.

426

Augustine completes City of God, (De civitate Dei) setting forth the Christian understanding of universal history and human destiny, his apologetic and dogmatic masterpiece.

426

Augustine visits Milevis to regulate succession of Bishop Severus by Eraclius.

426-427

Augustine writes On Grace and Free Will (De gratia et liberto arbitrio) On Admonition and Grace (De correptione et gratia), Reconsiderations (Retractationes), Against Maximus (Contra Maximinum Arianorum episcopum,De haeresibus ad Quodvultdeum.)

427

Nestorian controversy; Nestorius bishop of Constantinople condemns those who call Mary Theotokos, against long liturgical tradition; Cyril's Letter to the Monks of Egypt emphasizes the unity of Christ as divine and human as justification for Theotokos.

427

Nestorian controversy; Nestorius bishop of Constantinople condemns those who call Mary "Theotokos" (God-bearer; Cyril's Letter to the Monks of Egypt emphasizes the unity of Christ as divine and human as justification for Theotokos.
 

427

Rebellion of Boniface, governor in Africa.

427-437

Capreolus bishop of Carthage.

428-429

Augustine writes The Predestination of the Saints; The Gift of Perseverance; Prosper of Aquitaine writes Letter to Augustine.

429

Death of Aurelius, bishop of Carthage.

429

Vandals invade Africa from Spain, approaching along the coast of Mauretania; Darius comes to Africa to reconcile Boniface and the Empress.

429-430

Augustine writes Tractatus adversus Judaeos and Contra secundam Juliani responsionem opus imperfectum.

429ff.

Cyril of Alexandria writes Commentary on the Psalms, Treasure on the Holy and Consubstantial Trinity; Epistles; Against Diodore and Theodore.
 

430

Cyril of.Alexandria writes The Twelve Anathemas against Nestorian bifurcation of the unity of Christ.
 

430

Death of Augustine at Hippo (28th Aug.), during siege.

430

Defeat of Boniface in Africa; siege of Hippo by the Vandals, while St. Augustine is still living; Vandals ravage of Numidia.

c. 430

Death of Nilus, abbot of monastery of Sinai.

431

Palladius of Helenopolis (363-431) transplants monastic disciplines of the desert fathers to Ireland; as evidenced by oldest missal of the Irish Church (Stowe.)

431

Christological Controversy between Nestorius and Cyril of Alexandria leads to Third Ecumenical Council (Ephesus), convened by Theodosius II, ascribing Theotokos ("Godbearer") to the Virgin Mary; Nestorius deposed.
 

432

Patrick arrives in north of Ireland (allegedly from monastery of Lerins) with Pachomian monastic ideals.                                                                                                                                

433

 Formulary of Reunion between churches of Egypt and Syria.

434

Vincent of Lerins writes Right Remembering, (Commonitorium), articulates method for ecumenical teaching.

435

The Theodosian Code prohibits, among other things, the construction of new synagogues; sacrifices prohibited.

435

The Theodosian Code prohibits, among other things, the construction of new synagogues; sacrifices prohibited.

439

Vandals under Genseric (Gaeseric) capture Carthage.

444

Death of Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria, succeeded by Dioscorus (444-454.)

450

Silko, first Christian king of Ibrim (Nubia.)

c. 450

Arnobius the Younger, African monk.

c. 450

Arnobius the Younger, an African monk living in Rome.

451

Council of Chalcedon, Fourth ecumenical, approves Formulary of Reunion, Leo's Tome, and Cyril's Second Letter to Nestorius; confesses Christ as one person in two natures, a teaching rejected by so-called monophysite Christians in Egypt and Syria and elsewhere, who would come to constitute "Oriental" Orthodox Churches, separating Coptic Christianity from pro-Chalcedonian minority in Egypt.
 

451

Council of Chalcedon, Fourth ecumenical.

451-454

Dioscorus remains active, despite his deposition as leader of non-Chalcedonian Coptic Church until his death in 454; Melkites (Chalcedonians) are led by Proterius.
 

451-642

Long struggle between Coptic (non-Chalcedonian, "Monophysite") and Byzantine (Mel kite, Chalcedonian, Catholic) episcopal authorities for church property and prestige, especially in Alexandria; Coptic hegemony prevails in most of Egypt.
 

451ff.

Greek viewed by Copts as an alien language; Coptic preferred in Egyptian hinterland; a literary genre praising the lives of holy men arises: Lives of Apa Longinus, John of Lykopolis, Abraham, Moses, Zenobii, and Dioscorus, A Panegyric on Macarius Bishop of Tkow (killed defending non-Chalcedonian teaching); Stephen, bishop of Heracleopolis Magna (Hnes), Panegyric on Apollo of Monastery of Isaac.
 

453

Death of Quodvultdeus (fl. 430), bishop of Carthage.

c. 454

All of North Africa and Gaul now occupied by the Franks, Visigoths and Vandals, (ethnically Gothic, religiously Arian), who persecute the Catholics of Africa.

455

Sack of Rome by the Vandals, who soon occupy all the African provinces and the islands (Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica.)

455-476

Disintegration of Western Roman Empire.

455-476

Disintegration of Western Roman Empire.

456

Deogratias is bishop of Carthage.

457-477

Timothy II Aelurus (the Cat), patriarch of Alexandria.

459-475

Timothy II banished to Gangra where Dioscorus had languished; he writes seventeen Responsa Canonica on questions of marriage and sacraments, and Against Chalcedon.
 

460-481

Timothy the Wobble Hat as ambivalent Melkite patriarch of Alexandria.

466

Death of Shenute of Atripe; his successor Besa (Visa, bishop of Athribis) writes Life of Shenute in Sahidic, as well as Letters and Sermons.
 

468

Vandals defeat Imperial fleet.

477

Death of Genseric (Gaiseric.)

477

Death of Genseric (Gaiseric.)

477-489

Peter III (Mongas, the Stammerer), patriarch of Alexandria (non-Chalcedonian), forced underground.
 

483-484

Another outbreak of Vandal persecutions of Orthodox Christians in North Africa.

484

Acacian Schism; failure of talks between Catholics and Vandals, flight of Catholic leadership.

484

Catholic bishop Vigilius of Thapsus called before Huneric, writes Dialogus contra arrianos, Contra Eutychetem, defending Chalcedon against Arian and Monophysite arguments.

484

Death of Huneric, king of the Vandals, succeeded by Thrasmund.

484-489

Victor of Vita, priest of the church of Carthage, writes his History of the Persecution in the Province of Africa (Historica persecutionis Africanae provinciae.)

488

Death of John, monk of Maiuma larva near Gaza, author of Plerophoriai.

c. 490

Date of oldest Christian icons that survive from Egypt.