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Second century manuscript fragments preserved in Egypt: Egerton gospel (earliest); Sibylline Oracles from Antinoopolis; Gospel of Thomas from Oxyrhynchus, Shepherd of Hermas from the Fayyum.


Second century non-Gnostic Christian literature of Egyptian provenance Gospel of the Hebrews, Gospel of the Egyptians, Secret Gospel of Mark, Kerygma Petri, Apocalypse of Peter, Traditions of Matthias, Jannes and Jambres, Sentences of Sextus, Epistle of Barnabas, Second epistle of Clement, Writings of Athenagoras.


Second century non-Gnostic Christian literature of probable Egyptian provenance, and clearly circulated in Egypt, but debated as to origin: Gospel of Thomas, Sibylline Oracles, Protoevangelium of James, Acts of John, Acts of Andrew, Epistula Apostolurum; in addition some scholars argue an Egyptian provenance for the Epistle of Jude, Second Epistle of Peter, Testament of the Twelve patriarchs, Secret Book (Apocryphon) of James, and Gospel of Mary Magdalene.


Martyrdom of Simeon, son of Clopas, cousin of the Lord, may have had Jewish family links in Egypt.


Epistle of Barnabas addresses Alexandrian Jewish-Christian messianic community near time of Jewish revolt under Trajan, citing Abraham as "the father of the Gentiles." A later Ps.-Clementine homily (1.8-9) would also place Barnabas in Alexandria from where "Clement" followed him to Judea.


Jewish revolts in Cyrenaica and Alexandria harshly suppressed, almost wiping out huge numbers of Jews (a million of whom lived in Alexandria.)

c. 117-138

Valentinus preaching in upper and lower Egypt (Thebais, Arsinoitis, Alexandria); Valentinian renderings of the Gospel meld with Gnostic teachings; Gospel of Truth, Treatise on the Resurrection, Prayer of the Apostle Paul, Epistle to Rheginos On the Resurrection, Tripartite Treatise.


The Epistle of Diognetus is composed.


Bar Kochva revolt in Palestine has consequences for Jews in Africa.


Valentinian school produces Gospel of Philip, Interpretation of Knowledge, A Valentinian Exposition.


Appian, historian of Alexandria, flourishes.

c. 140

Aristo of Pella portrays dialogue between Papiscus, an Alexandrian Jew, and a Jewish Christian named Jason.

c. 150

Dialogue of the Savior (from Nag Hammadi); Gospel of the Ebionites known to Irenaeus (140-200).

c. 150

Marcion's truncated New Testament arrives in Egypt.

c. 150-216

Clement of Alexandria


Montanism from Phrygia reaches Africa by 180s.

c. 160

Birth of Tertullian (d. 225) a Carthaginian lay theologian.


Julius Africanus (of either Libya or Jerusalem) studies at Alexandria with Origen and Heraclas in Catechetical School; organizes library in Pantheon in Rome for Emperor Alexander Severus; wrote Chronicles, universal history based on scripture.


Death of Agrippinus, Bishop of Alexandria, succeeded by Julian (178-188).

c. 178

Celsus attacks Christianity, true Discourses, probably written in Alexandria.


Martyrs of Madaura in Numidia: Namphano, Miggin, Lucitas, Samae (all Berber names, native Africans), as recorded by Maximus of Madaura.


Martyrs of Scilli (Scillium may be near Carthage or in Numidia) first public record of Christian martyrdom in the Maghreb: Speratus, Narzales, Cythinus (Cittinus), Veturius, Felix, Acyllinus (Aquilinis), Laetantius, Januaria, Generosa, Vestina, Donata, and Secunda.

c. 180

Founding of catechetical school at Alexandria by Pantaenus, leading Christian teacher, missionary to "India" (Eusebius), teacher of Clement, a presbyter; (Note that Philip of Side places Athenagoras before Pantaenus in the school at Alexandria


Apocryphon of John is written (before 185.)


Testimony of Truth is written (probably Alexandrian.)


Minucius Felix, African lawyer in Rome, writes his dialogue Octavius.


Birth of Origen


Death of Julian, bishop of Alexandria


African Pope Victor, first bishop of Rome to come from Africa, likely from the Latin west.

c. 190

Bible translated into Latin first in Africa before Europe (likely used by Christian communities in Carthage.)

c. 190

Birth of Dionysius of Alexandria


Scriptoria exist in both Oxyrhynchus and Antinoopolis. Second century Alexandrian Gnostic writings: Eugnostos the Blessed, Sophia of Jesus Christ, Apocalypse of Paul, Perfect Mind, Second Treatise on the Great Seth.


Clement of Alexandria, a convert to Christanity, writes Address to the Greeks (Protreptikos).


Septimius Severus from Leptis Magna becomes the first emperor of Rome from Africa; reigns until 211; dynasty lasts until 235.

c. 193

Tertullian converts to Christianity; first African Christian to produce an extensive Latin literary corpus; Tertullian writes Apology (Apologeticum.)


Clement of Alexandria flourishes, writes Christ the Educator, excerpts from Theodotus (a student of Valentinus), and Miscellanies.


African-born Pope Victor intervenes in the Quartodeciman controversy on date of Easter.


Tertullian writes To the Martyrs (Ad Martyras.)


Edict of Severus forbidding Jewish & Christian Proselytism.


Edict of Severus forbidding Jewish and Christian proselytism.

c. 197

Growth of Sabellianism in Cyrenaica; monarchian controversies on relation of the Father and the Son.


Tertullian writes To the Heathens (Ad Nations); The Testimony of the Soul (De Testimonio Animae); On the Shows (De spectaculis), On the Prescription of Heretics (De praescriptione), Against Marcion (Adversus Marcionem.)


Martyrdom of Simeon, son of Clopas, cousin of the Lord, may have had Jewish family links in Egypt.